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What should you know about hemorrhoids?
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* What are hemorrhoids?
Hemorrhoids (piles) are blood vessels located in the smooth muscles of the walls of the rectum and anus. They are a normal part of the anatomy and are located at the junction where small arteries merge into veins. They are cushioned by smooth muscles and connective tissue and are classified by where they are located in relationship to the pectinate line, the dividing point between the upper 2/3 and lower 1/3 of the anus. This is an important anatomic distinction because of the type of cells that line the hemorrhoid, and the nerves that provide sensation.
* What are internal and external hemorroids?
Internal hemorrhoids are located above the pectinate line and are covered with cells that are the same as those that line the rest of the intestines. External hemorrhoids arise below the line and are covered with cells that resemble skin.
** What are the symptoms of hemorroids?
Hemorrhoids become an issue only when they begin to swell, causing itching, pain and/or bleeding.
* What do and external and internal hemorrhoids look like (pictures)?
Normal hemorrhoidal tissue cannot be seen since they must first swell and become inflamed or develop a clot to cause symptoms. One can see swollen external hemorrhoids or internal prolapsed hemorrhoids exposed outside the anus but internal hemorrhoids cannot be seen because they remain inside the anus. A thrombosed hemorrhoid will appear as a lump at the anal verge, protruding from the anus and will be dark bluish in color because of the blood clot contained inside the swollen blood vessel. A non-thrombosed hemorrhoid will appear as a rubbery lump. Often more than one swollen hemorrhoid appears at the same time.
* What causes hemorrhoids?
While the presence of hemorrhoids is a reflection of the normal anatomy, most people and care professionals refer to hemorrhoids as an abnormal finding because they only present when they swell and cause problems.
Hemorrhoid swelling occurs when there is an increase in the pressure in the small vessels that make up the hemorrhoid causing them to swell and engorge with blood. This causes them to increase in size leading to symptoms. Increased pressure may be caused by a variety of factors:
* Low fiber diet and smaller caliber stool causes a person to strain when having a bowel movement, increasing the pressure within the blood vessels.
Pregnancy is associated with hemorrhoid swelling and is likely due to increased pressure of the enlarged uterus on the rectum and anus. In addition, hormonal changes with pregnancy may weaken the muscles that support the rectum and anus.
Prolonged sitting on the toilet may increase pressure within the hemorrhoid blood vessels
Diarrhea, both acute and chronic
Previous rectal surgery
Spinal cord injury and lack of erect posture
* When an internal hemorrhoid becomes inflamed, it can cause swelling. This in itself does not cause pain because there are no pain fibers attached to the veins above the pectinate line. Passing a hard stool can scrape off the thinned lining of the hemorrhoid causing painless bleeding. However, the swollen hemorrhoid can also cause spasm of the muscles that surround the rectum and anus causing pain, especially if they protrude or prolapse through the anus. A lump can be felt at the anal verge. Internal hemorrhoids can also thrombose (clot) leading to severe pain.
* The inflamed hemorrhoid can leak mucus that can cause inflammation of the skin surrounding the anus causing burning and itching, known as pruritis ani. However, other causes of itching include yeast and other skin infections and parasites like pinworms. Most importantly, just as blood in the stool should not ignored in the stool because it mike be a sign of colon cancer, anal itching or bleeding should not be presumed to be due to hemorrhoids because it can be a sign of anal cancer tumor.
* External hemorrhoids behave differently since they are covered by "regular skin" and have pain fibers associated with them. A thrombosed external hemorrhoid occurs when an underlying vein within the hemorrhoid clots off causing intense pain from the rapid stretching of the skin covering the hemorrhoid. A hard painful lump can be felt at the anus. External hemorrhoids can also result in excess skin tags that can be felt at the anal verge and can cause difficulties with cleaning after a bowel movement, leading to secondary skin infections.
* How are hemorrhoids diagnosed?
The common symptoms of a hemorrhoid include itching, pain, rectal fullness or lump, and bleeding. The diagnosis is made by history taking and physical examination. The history may focus on the associated symptoms including constipation, hard bowel movements, and straining while going to the toilet. Other questions may be asked to look for other causes of rectal bleeding including tumors, inflammatory bowel disease, and gastrointestinal bleeding.
* Physical examination is performed to confirm the diagnosis and includes a rectal examination where a finger is used to feel for abnormal lumps or masses. Interestingly, internal hemorrhoids cannot usually be felt. The rectal exam may be deferred if there is intense pain or swelling. In addition, hemorrhoids and constipation may be associated with anal fissures or cracks in the skin surrounding the anus. The associated pain and spasm makes a rectal exam very uncomfortable.
* If the health care professional is concerned that the symptoms, especially rectal bleeding, cannot be explained by hemorrhoids, anoscopy may be considered. Anoscopy is an office procedure where a lighted tube is inserted to look at the anus. Sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy may be ordered if there is concern that the bleeding is arising from other areas of the colon. These procedures are usually performed by a gastroenterologist or surgeon.
* Depending upon the situation, blood tests may be ordered. If there has been excessive bleeding, the hemoglobin or red blood cell count may be checked. If the patient is taking warfarin (Coumadin), an INR (international normalized ratio) or PT (protime) may be ordered to check for appropriate blood "thinning". Please note that there are many newer anticoagulation medications available to "thin" the blood and their activity cannot be measured by routine blood tests.
* Can natural home remedies treat and prevent hemorroids?
Regardless of the size or swelling of a hemorrhoid, no treatment is required if symptoms do not exist. Prevention is perhaps the most effective treatment. Diet and adequate hydration are very important to maintain normal bowel movements. Hemorrhoid symptoms can occur with the passage of hard stool and constipation, as well as diarrhea and frequent bowel movements. People with constipation, high fiber diet, adequate hydration and stool softeners may be required. For those with too frequent bowel movements, antidiarrheal medications and diet adjustments may be required. These preventive measures decrease the amount of straining that is required to have a bowel movement, thus decreasing the pressure within the blood vessels to prevent swelling.: the internal hemorrhoid always stays protruded or prolapsed and is at risk for thrombosis or strangulation should the anal muscles go into spasm.
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Hemorrhoids:- As Called (Piles)
Swollen and inflamed veins in the rectum and anus that cause discomfort and bleeding.
Haemorrhoids are usually caused by straining during bowel movements, obesity or Constipation.
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